The Most Common Reasons For Running Casing In a Well

The Following Are The Most Common Reasons For Running Casing In a Well:

protect fresh-water aquifers (surface casing)

provide strength for installation of wellhead equipment, including BOPs

provide pressure integrity so that wellhead equipment, including BOPs, may be closed

seal off leaky or fractured formations into which drilling fluids are lost

seal off low-strength formations so that higher strength (and generally higher pressure) formations may be penetrated safely

seal off high-pressure zones so that lower pressure formations may be drilled with lower drilling fluid densities

seal off troublesome formations, such as flowing salt

comply with regulatory requirements (usually related to one of the factors listed above).


Large-diameter pipe lowered into an openhole and cemented in place. The well designer must design casing to withstand a variety of forces, such as collapse, burst, and tensile failure, as well as chemically aggressive brines. Most casing joints are fabricated with male threads on each end, and short-length casing couplings with female threads are used to join the individual joints of casing together, or joints of casing may be fabricated with male threads on one end and female threads on the other. Casing is run to protect freshwater formations, isolate a zone of lost returns, or isolate formations with significantly different pressure gradients. The operation during which the casing is put into the wellbore is commonly called "running pipe." Casing is usually manufactured from plain carbon steel that is heat-treated to varying strengths but may be specially fabricated of stainless steel, aluminum, titanium, fiberglass, and other materials.

Well Control

The technology focused on maintaining pressure on open formations (that is, exposed to the wellbore) to prevent or direct the flow of formation fluids into the wellbore. This technology encompasses the estimation of formation fluid pressures, the strength of the subsurface formations and the use of casing and mud density to offset those pressures in a predictable fashion. Also included are operational procedures to safely stop a well from flowing should an influx of formation fluid occur. To conduct well-control procedures, large valves are installed at the top of the well to enable wellsite personnel to close the well if necessary.

Drill Pipe

Tubular steel conduit fitted with special threaded ends called tool joints. The drillpipe connects the rig surface equipment with the bottomhole assembly and the bit, both to pump drilling fluid to the bit and to be able to raise, lower and rotate the bottomhole assembly and bit.


A casing string that does not extend to the top of the wellbore, but instead is anchored or suspended from inside the bottom of the previous casing string. There is no difference between the casing joints themselves. The advantage to the well designer of a liner is a substantial savings in steel, and therefore capital costs. To save casing, however, additional tools and risk are involved. The well designer must trade off the additional tools, complexities and risks against the potential capital savings when deciding whether to design for a liner or a casing string that goes all the way to the top of the well (a "long string"). The liner can be fitted with special components so that it can be connected to the surface at a later time if need be.

Choke Line

A high-pressure pipe leading from an outlet on the BOP stack to the backpressure choke and associated manifold. During well-control operations, the fluid under pressure in the wellbore flows out of the well through the choke line to the choke, reducing the fluid pressure to atmospheric pressure. In floating offshore operations, the choke and kill lines exit the subsea BOP stack and then run along the outside of the drilling riser to the surface. The volumetric and frictional effects of these long choke and kill lines must be considered to properly control the well.

Bop Stack

A set of two or more BOPs used to ensure pressure control of a well. A typical stack might consist of one to six ram-type preventers and, optionally, one or two annular-type preventers. A typical stack configuration has the ram preventers on the bottom and the annular preventers at the top.

The configuration of the stack preventers is optimized to provide maximum pressure integrity, safety and flexibility in the event of a well control incident. For example, in a multiple ram configuration, one set of rams might be fitted to close on 5-in diameter drillpipe, another set configured for 4 1/2-in drillpipe, a third fitted with blind rams to close on the openhole, and a fourth fitted with a shear ram that can cut and hang-off the drillpipe as a last resort.

It is common to have an annular preventer or two on the top of the stack since annulars can be closed over a wide range of tubular sizes and the openhole, but are typically not rated for pressures as high as ram preventers. The BOP stack also includes various spools, adapters and piping outlets to permit the circulation of wellbore fluids under pressure in the event of a well control incident.

Choke Manifold

A set of high-pressure valves and associated piping that usually includes at least two adjustable chokes, arranged such that one adjustable choke may be isolated and taken out of service for repair and refurbishment while well flow is directed through the other one.


A subsurface body of rock having sufficient porosity and permeability to store and transmit fluids. Sedimentary rocks are the most common reservoir rocks because they have more porosity than most igneous and metamorphic rocks and form under temperature conditions at which hydrocarbons can be preserved. A reservoir is a critical component of a complete petroleum system.


The hardware used to optimize the production of hydrocarbons from the well. This may range from nothing but a packer on tubing above an openhole completion ("barefoot" completion), to a system of mechanical filtering elements outside of perforated pipe, to a fully automated measurement and control system that optimizes reservoir economics without human intervention (an "intelligent" completion).

Production Tubing

A wellbore tubular used to produce reservoir fluids. Production tubing is assembled with other completion components to make up the production string. The production tubing selected for any completion should be compatible with the wellbore geometry, reservoir production characteristics and the reservoir fluids.

Injection Line

A small-diameter conduit that is run alongside production tubulars to enable injection of inhibitors or similar treatments during production. Conditions such as high hydrogen sulfide [H2S] concentrations or severe scale deposition can be counteracted by injection of treatment chemicals and inhibitors during production.


A chemical agent added to a fluid system to retard or prevent an undesirable reaction that occurs within the fluid or with the materials present in the surrounding environment. A range of inhibitors is commonly used in the production and servicing of oil and gas wells, such as corrosion inhibitors used in acidizing treatments to prevent damage to wellbore components and inhibitors used during production to control the effect of hydrogen sulfide [H2S].

Chemical Injection

A general term for injection processes that use special chemical solutions to improve oil recovery, remove formation damage, clean blocked perforations or formation layers, reduce or inhibit corrosion, upgrade crude oil, or address crude oil flow-assurance issues. Injection can be administered continuously, in batches, in injection wells, or at times in production wells.

Post time: Apr-27-2022